Chapter 14: Heaven and hell doors
Chapter 14: Heaven and hell doors
Khajeh Nasir, in chapter 14 of the beginning and the end book, said, “There are seven senses for the material world perceptions. Five apparent senses [Sight, Taste, Touch, Smell, Hearing] and two inner senses, one perceiver of figures and one perceiver of meanings. Thinking, memorization, and remembering are helpers for these main senses. “Have you considered him who has taken his desire for his god? God has led him astray with knowledge” (Al-Jathiya:23). His status would be: “As for him who was defiant. (37) And preferred the life of this world. (38) Then Hell is the shelter” (An-Nazi’at:37:39). So, each of these senses would be like a door of hell. “It has seven doors; for each door is an assigned class”(Al-Hijr:44). The intellect is the head of all those senses. So, If the intellect, which is the perceiver of the upper world, prevents people from obeying their desires, they perceive the divine signs of God’s book with each sense proportionally. Unlike people who will say: “And they will say, “Had we listened or reasoned, we would not have been among the inmates of the Blaze” (Al-Mulk:10). For the second group of people will have eight doors of heaven (Intellect plus seven senses). “But as for him who feared the Standing of his Lord, and restrained the self from desires. (40) Then Paradise is the shelter” (An-Nazi’at:40-41).
Every world has characteristics, rules, and requirements. Another critical point is that the worlds are in continuation of each other. The lower world indicates the upper world, or the lower world represents the upper world. We could find more information about the upper level by the lower level of things. Mystics call the lower level “surface” and the higher level “depth” of the sea. In this world, we need doors to enter different places; Similarly, to enter other worlds, we need a way to enter, which we interpret as the door. For example, the door of heaven or the door of hell. These doors are not the same as the material door, but they are ways to enter heaven or hell. In the Holy Quran or in narrations, we see there is the discussion of doors for heaven or hell. For example, “The satisfaction is the door of Almighty God,” or “Crying for Imam Hussain (A) is a door of heaven”, or “Salman said to one companion of Prophet Muhammad (S): I heard from the Prophet that you are a door of hell”. These are the truth that people enter heaven or hell with them.
As we discussed before, the real grave of humans is Barzakh. The grave here is an indication of the real grave in the Hereafter. Everyone is their own heaven or hell. Human’s Nafs is the field where the seeds of heaven and hell are planted, and the paradise that man sees after death is actually what he sees himself; man is united with those truths; his actions are embodied there, so in reality, man’s soul is the field that becomes heaven or hell. As a result, the way these perceptions are made is called the doors of heaven or hell; if a person is in hell, his senses of perception become the doors of hell and vice versa. There are seven senses for the material world perceptions. Five apparent senses [Sight, Taste, Touch, Smell, Hearing] and two inner senses, one perceiver of figures, “Khial”, and one perceiver of meanings, “Wahm”. So, if a person is in hell, he will have seven doors through which fire enters. If a person is in heaven, he will have seven doors plus another one which is his intellect. Khajeh Tusi interpreted these doors of heaven and hell as the perception senses.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: This chapter, like other chapters, is significant, and to understand the purpose of this chapter, you must be very careful. The doors mentioned in this chapter are the gates that are open to each person. These doors are blessing gates for some people and torments gates for others. Some people become a person of paradise from the same door, or they become heaven, and some people become a person of hell, or they become hell. The blissful is the one who has import and export of these doors under his careful consideration, and this is a breathtaking care called “Great War” in narrations. In other words, this is the care and maintenance of purity in all one’s existence, from the purity of the clothes to the purity of the heart and above. The hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (S) said, “Always be with purity to make your sustenance high”. The excellent sustenance for humans is divine teachings.
One who does not audit himself is not from us. We must think about our actions during the day and how many mistakes we made. If it was an evil deed, we should seek forgiveness from God and try to compensate if possible or promise not to repeat it. If it was a good deed, thank God and try to do it again. Allameh Tabatabaei said that the greater “Muraqiba” during the day, the clear inspiration, or intuitions at night (Muraqiba means taking care of all actions, speech, and thoughts to avoid disobeying divine commands). We are making our Hereafter with the power gained by our body, so if this power is from forbidden food, what is produced is hell because the fruit of everything is like its trees. Unlawful food does not let us succeed in performing good actions. Prophet Muhammad (S) said, “In “Me’raj”(ascension), I saw some angels that were making castles and then stopped for a while then started again. I asked Angel Gabriel (A), “Why are they not working?” Angel Gabriel (A) replied, “Because they have not yet received the material for the castles. I asked, “What is the material?” and the angel Gabriel replied, “Remembering God”. Some have asked, “What is the remembering of God”, Prophet (S) replied, “Saying Al-Hamd u Lillah (praise all to God) or Sobhan Allah (Glory to God)”. Another person asked if this is the case, then we have lots of gardens and castles there; the Holy Prophet (S) replied, “If you do not sin and burn them”. “And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad). (39) And that his deeds will be seen, (40)” (An-Najm:39:40). The first condition in the divine journey is gaining Halal (lawful) food. The “Great War” in narration means the war with “Nafs’ desires”. Some people understood this incorrectly. They think, If their Nafs want to go from path A, we should go from path B to have the great war. The point is that the great war must be made under the master’s recommendations. Otherwise, our Nafs become stronger. Our master is prophet Muhammad (S) and our infallible Imams. We must obey religious laws and not sin if we want a great war. Someone told me that I am at great war with my Nafs; he would like to eat meat, but I forbid it for myself and not eating any food that has meat. I told him that his Nafs’ desire forced him not to eat meat. I told him, “If you like to have great war, come to classes and study,” and he told me, No, this is difficult. Satan has prepared all kinds of traps for humans. He makes the ugly act so beautiful that people like it. The pure nature of all human beings hates sin. “Satan made their deeds appear good to them, and said, “You cannot be defeated by any people today, and I am at your side.” But when the two armies came in sight of one another, he turned on his heels, and said, “I am innocent of you; I see what you do not see; I fear God; God is severe in punishment” (Al-Anfal:46). The devil’s path to us is the power of imagination (our Khial world), He plays with our desires and angriness in our Khial world. So, we must preserve ourselves and be careful in all states.
This is the care and maintenance of purity in all one’s existence, from the purity of the clothes, actions, and attributes to the purity of the heart and above, which is the purity of anything other than God. A human can reach a degree of seeing nothing except God and his manifestations. Prophet Muhammad (S) said, “Always be with purity to make your sustenance high”. One of the meanings of purity is Wudu. When I saw Allameh Hassanzadeh for the first time, He said to be with “Wudu” at all times; Wudu is light. Sometimes a person’s food is rice, meat, wheat, bread, etc., and sometimes the food of a person is divine knowledge, love, intuition, and inspiration; these are the higher level of sustenance. In Ziarat Ashura: “O God, sustain us with the intercession of Imam Hussain (A)”. Humans should always be in a status where to see the presence of God. If we don’t eat, the body becomes weak; similarly, if our souls don’t eat, the soul becomes weak, and the food of the human soul is divine knowledge and love. Allameh Hassanzadeh said that divine wayfarers should see their master twice weekly to seek food for their souls. The soul needs food, and hearing is the mouth of people’s souls. The study is good, but getting the knowledge from the master face-to-face is better. Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali (A): There are three groups of people: 1. Divine scholars. 2. Those who seek knowledge and obey God’s guardian. 3. Others are flies. Allameh Hassanzadeh said, “O my Lord, everyone sees demons and devils in the mountains and deserts, but Hassan sees them in the city and street”. Most ordinary people’s egos are weak, like sparrows, because their souls have not been fed and their souls have not expanded with knowledge.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: There are different opinions about the number of apparent senses. Some believe that they are more than five of them. Avicenna discussed this in chapters five and three of Shifa’ book. Mula Sadra also discusses this in chapter two of the Asfar book. He concluded that the apparent senses are five, and the rest are part of the touch sense. Avicenna, after explaining the touch sense, said, “It is possible that for some people, the touch sense is not a Nu’ (Type) but a Jins (Genus) (refer to chapter five of this book). For example, the following perceptions are part of the touch sense: warmth or cold, dryness or wetness, heaviness or lightness, and roughness or softness. Since they are gathered in the one tool, then people think they are one”. It is important to know that humans’ powers are both the doors of heaven and hell, and it depends on who uses them. If a person is a paradise person, these human powers are the doors of heaven and heaven itself, and if a person is a hell person, these are the doors of hell and hell itself. You are the user; those doors are you, the maker; you are the built one. “Whatever good happens to you is from God, and whatever bad happens to you is from your own self” (An-Nisa:79). There may be an illusion that, in this case, the issue of “Daur” arises.[“Daur” (recurring) is one of the terms of logic and philosophy, which is widely used in other sciences, especially jurisprudence and principles. “Daur” means: The existence of something stops on its own existence (with or without mediation). For example: “A” rests on “B,” and “B” rests on “A”. So “A” depends on “A”. There is no difference in invalidating the recurring in philosophy because it requires the priority of the object over the self. The explanation is that if the existence of “A” depends on “B” and the existence of “B” depends on “A”, then for “A” to exist, “B” must already exist, and “A” is non-existent, and because the existence of “B” “ is also suspended due to the existence of “A”, so “A” must exist at the exact moment. As a result, it is necessary to have “A” exist and non-exist at once. The existence and non-existence of one thing in the same entity mean the union of opposites, which is impossible. Someone might say: you said if we are heaven, these doors make us heavenly, and if we are among hell people, these doors make us hell people. So, which one is correct? Do people first need to be heavenly to be made a heaven person? The answer can be found in lessons 31 and 32 of the self-knowledge book of Allameh Hassanzadeh Amoli. For example, “The action causes knowledge, and knowledge causes action. Is this “Daur” (a recurring) issue in philosophy? These knowledge and actions are related to different levels. When we act upon our knowledge, we will get a knowledge that is higher than the previous one. Mulla Sadra said: Enthusiasm and a divine journey toward God require knowledge, and his knowledge is based on holy walking toward him. Knowledge is the first and the last, the beginning and the end. The “Daur” Issue does not appear because of the difference in the order of knowledge in strength or weakness.
A human being is composed of the order of animality and the order of angelic, a series of perceptions are related to the order of human animality, and a series of perceptions are associated with the order of human angelic. The five external senses that humans share with animals include smell, hearing, sight, taste, and touch. Humans also have two inner senses, one is the power of imagination (Khial Power), and the other is Wahm power. Imagination power is like a dream, which is the perception of forms without matter, including the imagination or forms we make in our minds or see in dreams. Even external perceptions with five senses are perceived in the Khial power. Also, human existential export is done through the power of imagination. For example, in order to speak, a person first brings the subject to his imagination and then expresses it in his tongue or writes something in a book. Sometimes people forget things because things do not form in the imagination power. Wahm power perceives the detained meanings like the love that someone gives you or the respect that they show you. Kindness does not have a form. We see someone stand up for us; we have a power that we perceive as respect. Our eyes see some motions, but we perceive kindness. The Wahm power is the one that causes the perception of those meanings. We perceive the meaning with people’s motions by Wahm power. Some animals also have this power, weak or strong. For example, dogs can perceive their owner’s kindness.
Jalāl al-Din Muḥammad Rumi in Masnawi said:
The path of sense (apparent senses) is the path of donkeys, Shame on you who disturb the animals.
There are five senses other than these five outer senses; the outer is like copper, and the inner is like gold (Inner sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste senses which perceive the divine world).
Those who are the people of Resurrection will not exchange the copper senses with gold senses.
The food of the outer senses is like this world and is darkness (the material world from a mystic viewpoint); The inner senses eat lights.
Whoever sees the signs with divine senses will have better worship.
The animal senses cannot distinguish between the king and the beggar; otherwise, the donkey and cow would see God.
If you didn’t have anything other than animal sense, why did you become aware of common sense (Phantasiai (φαντασίαι) sense in philosophy which was discussed before)?
An example of inner smell sense in the Quran is in the story of Prophet Jacob (A) and Prophet Joseph (A). “As the caravan set out, their father said, “I sense the presence of Joseph, though you may think I am senile” (Yusuf:94). It is said in the narration that angels recognize people’s intentions by smelling them and, therefore, we are ordered to perfume ourselves by asking for forgiveness (Istiqfar). Examples of inner touch in narrations: When Imam of Time, Imam Mahdi (AJ), appears, he will lay his hands on the heads of the Shiites, and their intellect will be perfected. Prophet Muhammad (S) said that God placed his hand between my shoulders, and I felt a coolness in my chest. I understood everything that is happening in the heavens and the earth. An example of inner sight in the Holy Quran: “And say, Praise belongs to God; He will show you His signs, and you will recognize them” (An-Naml:93). Whoever sees God’s signs dedicates himself to God.
In a dream, a person sees his fantasies because the external senses are disabled, and if a person’s heart is pure, meanings from the upper world are shown, and the divine image of the upper world is placed in common sense. It is also possible to see divine images when a person is awake, but he must be pure and pious. Imam Sadiq (A) said, close your eyes to see miracles. This hadith has a secret: if a person closes his eyes, he can see things under certain conditions. The Khial power is called “Musawwarih” (Designer/Shaper) in medical science. This name also entered into philosophy discussion. The power of imagination in medical books is called Musawwarih, which differs from Musawwarih in philosopher’s discussion. We have a power that makes us a figure: our shape, the size of our hands, the size of our nose, the size of our eyes, etc. This power is a manifestation of the Name of Al-Musawwar, which makes the human body a form. Doctors call this “Musawwarih Quwwa” (forming power), but philosophers consider this as imagination power that creates imaginary shapes. Avicenna, in chapter 2, said, “Indeed, the imagination power is Khial, and in its latest stage, are located sensible figure”. The important point in this chapter is that the senses are the doors of heaven and hell.
Wahm is the fallen intellect
We have five ways of perceiving:
- Sensible perceiving: When we see an apple tree that has both a figure and matter.
- Khial perceiving: When we picture an apple tree in our mind which has a figure but does not have matter.
- Wahm perceiving: When we understand the meaning, which is free from figure and matter, like when we understand respect of people with their actions.
- Intelligence perceiving: When we understand the general meaning of a tree. It is also free from matter and figures.
- Super-intelligence perceiving: Proves that “Nafs” or “I” has the potential to be unlimited.
Some people combined types three and four into one category. An important note is that the act of perceiving is free from matter. We described that to perceive, we need to have a “one” identity, which we have proved before that matter does not have a real “one”. Therefore, perception is immaterial and done by our “I”, which is also immaterial. Wahm power returns to intellectual power, and it is not separate power. We perceive the meaning in both types, but it is a detailed perception in Wahm and a total/general perception in intellect. It is with Wahm’s power that we can recognize friends from enemies. Being afraid at night is due to Wahm’s power. Our intellect says it is not scary to sleep beside a dead body, but Wahm causes fear. In general, we have three worlds, 1- Material world 2-Barzakh/ Methal/ Khial world, and 3- Intellect world.
Allameh Hassanzadeh said, “Wahm is a lower order of intellect, The stronger the intellect, the weaker it becomes Wahm”. “Musha” Philosophers believed that the perceptions are four classes (Chapter Three of Shifa’s book, Avicenna), but he mentioned three types in Chapter 8 of Isharat book. Khajeh Nasir Tusi explained that perceptions are four types, material, khial, wahm, and intellect perceptions. Based on trinity rules (Islamic philosophy), Mulla Sadra believed that perception is three types according to three worlds. He believed Wahm is a lower level of intellect. It is written three times in his Asfar book as follows:
- Chapter fourteen of Asfar: The difference between the Wahm perception and Intellectual perception is not in essence but related to things outside. It is detailed addition. (When the meaning is exclusive, the perception is Wahm (illusory), but when the meaning is general, the perception is intellectual). The truth is that perception is three types, as the worlds are three. Sense, Wahm, Intellect. (When we see a tree, it is sensible perception. When we imagine a tree in our mind, it is Wahm perception, but when we consider the meaning or concept of Tree, it is intellect perception. Another example: the meaning or concept of fear, enmity, or existence is intellect perception. Wahm power is the intellect that is attached exclusively to things.
- Chapter three of Asfar: In my viewpoint, the Wahm power does not have separate essence from intellect. The wahm power is the addition of intellect to an exclusive being, and It is the belonging and management of that thing. The intellect power that belongs to the imagination (Khial) is Wahm power. Wahm perceptions are general meanings that are added to imagination forms. For example, when a person perceives enmity, there are two states, either he perceives the enmity of a specific person, or he only perceives enmity without considering a specific person or being. If the perception is in the first form, it is wahm perception, which is the degradation of intellect perception. If the perception is in the second form, the perception of the enmity without a specific person, then it is the intellect perception. It is important to know that meanings such as enmity or kindness are not upright with beings. In summary, when general meanings like enmity are perceived in a specific being, our mind makes it. It is like cause and effect, precedence and delay, and addition like father and son. The additional perceptions are either by absolute intellect when it is inclusive, or it is by wahm power when it belongs to a specific condition. (Wahm is perceptions of meanings with figures in the Khial world that are caused by our senses. General enmity perceives by intellect, and specific enmity perceives by wahm).
- Chapter five of Asfar book: The meaning of Enmity is perceived by the absolute intellect, but the enmity of a person is perceived by the intellect that is in relation to the imagination (Khial).
Mir Damad (Mulla Sadra’s teacher) said in his book “Jazawat“ that human perception is four types: Sense, Imagination, Wahm, and Intellect. Wahm is not a separate perceiver but is an intellect that is perceived by imagination. Avicenna wrote in his book (Isharat) that perceptions are three types.
Allameh Hassanzadeh explained in his book “Mystic and divine philosophy” using Ibn Arabi’s essays in Futuhat (and Fusus) and Mulla Sadra’s essays in Asfar. Mulla Sadra proved these true mystical intuitions through rational reasons.
Allameh Qaysari, in chapter Adam of Fusus, said: A person who pays attention will understand that when the Wahm power becomes strong, it will become enlightened. It will become an intellect that perceives general meanings because wahm is a light from the lights of the general intellect, which has descended to the lower world along with the light of the human soul. It is weak in terms of enlightenment and called wahm due to its distance from the source of intellectual light. Therefore, when the human temperament is strengthened and enlightened using moderation, it becomes intellect, just as the intellect reaches the level of the total intellect (Aql Mostafad).
Allameh Hassanzadeh: “The subject is about different types of perceptions. As I explained, perception is three types, and wahm is a descendent of the intellect perceptions. Sight is one type of sense and perception. If we see some part of a being through a tiny hole or see it completely without a small hole, sight perception is one, even though one is limited and the other is limitless. This is also true for seeing a being with a healthy or weak eye. Absolute Existence and limited Existence are both “Existence,” but the difference is that one is limitless, and the other is limited. Limited and unlimited meaning perception does not cause two types of perception, even if it is with two means or two forces, so understand”.
“Thinking, memorization, and remembrance are not perceivers but helpers”
We have thinking, memorization, and remembrance powers which are part of Nafs’ degrees or ranks. Meaning if we consider Nafs from the thinking aspect, we call it thinking power; when we consider it from the memorization aspect, we call it memorization, and so on.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: “The wahm power is the higher king in animals. The wahm power is a degree of human’s Nafs, and it is in control of an intelligent human as animals are under humans’ control. In animals, the relation of wahm power to other powers under his control is like the human ego to the powers under the control of the human Nafs (In the same way, among humans, ignorant people are usually condemned or ruled by wise people in an ideal society). Therefore, animal perceptions are wahm type, and human perceptions are intellectual type (human wahm power is stronger than animals because it is under intellect control). For example, an animal’s sight perception is wahm type, but a human’s sight perception is an intellectual type which is why humans understand truths, unlike animals. Whether this discovery is through preliminaries or through other perceptions that the human Nafs has, therefore, the wahm perception of humans is also rational because the human Nafs has different states and degrees, from the lowest order, which is the body to the supreme order of celibacy and perfection. All these are human perceptions. In the touch sense level, a human is whom he feels. At the Khial level, a human is whom he imagines. At the Wahm or intellect level, a human is whom he perceives”.
In animals, all perceptions are under wahm perceptions, but in humans; all perceptions are under intellectual perceptions, which is why humans can prove things and brings rational reason, unlike animals. That is why humans can speak, and philosophers called humans the animals who can speak. Talking is to convey information from one person to another person. For example, I understand something and want to share it with the other party, so I convey it to him by speaking. Because animals don’t have the intelligence to discover new meanings, they don’t need to talk. Animals have sounds; for example, a wolf howls when there is an enemy, or there is food, or a parrot imitates like you imitate the sound of a nightingale; if it has meaning, you don’t know what they are saying. Human speaking is due to the power of intellect, which discovers meanings for him, because they are general meanings, and therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn without intellectual power. Because man finds the general meanings with his intellect, he needs to speak to convey the meanings, so we say that the human Nafs is a speaker, and speaking is a manifestation of intellect. For example, a donkey chooses the shortest path to reach the grass, but it does not have a rational conclusion. The stronger the intellect is, the stronger the perceptions will be. In many inventions, it is like this. First, a person understands a meaning and then looks for a reason and its correctness. Even in experimental sciences, it is like this, in one moment, a discovery comes to a person, and then he realizes that he has reached the goal. The cleaner and more transparent the Existence channel of a human being, the more transparent the divine mercy and knowledge he receives will be. There are different kinds of revelations, evil, satanic, divine angels, and from the Nafs of humans. “The devils inspire their followers to argue with you” (Al-An’am:121). Sometimes a person receives a correct discovery, but the devils intervene to spoil it, show the information wrongly, or put two things right next to it, so the person falls into a mistake. The greatest instruction is to give up sin, as Prophet Khizr (A) said to Prophet Moses (A) that purity brings a person to higher levels.
Avicenna said: “Human powers and senses in terms of proximity to intellect or speaking, which is the appearance of intellect, make his inner powers become completely rational, unlike animals. The imagination that exists for humans is a place for the manifestation of intellect (a subject for intellect), while it is a subject or place for wahm in animals (human imagination is under the control of human reason, and the imagination of animals is under the control of animal wahm); therefore, humans can use imagination in different sciences as well as the power of remembrance or memory”.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: “With these sentences from Avicenna, I wonder why Avicenna does not say that Human Nafs occurs from matter; it is all its power, meaning unity in multiplicity and multiplicity in unity. Also, he does not say that human Nafs has a degree higher than numerical unity and a higher degree than immateriality so that, he believes in “Wahdat Shakhsi Wojud” (Personal Unity of Existence). In this belief, He could gain insight into Nafs and see that “It is He who is God in heaven and God on earth” (Az-Zukhruf:84). And “He is the First and the Last, and the Outer and the Inner” (Al-Hadid:3). So, he could be free from the doubts, temptations, and concerns of “Masha” philosophers in the issues of accidental and permanent connection or God’s knowledge to details and the like”.
Human Nafs occurs from matter and passes perfections levels until it reaches the level that it can become all its senses and perceptions. At the Khial level, he is the one who imagines, in the intellect level is the one who is intelligent, and so on. Here we know God through self-knowledge. It is unity in multiplicity and multiplicity in unity, meaning it is human Nafs with different powers. Nafs is all powers while it is one. It is one Nafs, but it has all these multiplicities. Khial power is not separate from Nafs; it is the Nafs but not all of it. Nafs is not limited to Khial power. Sight power is the Nafs, but not all of it, The Nafs cannot be limited to sight power. After understanding this essential and profound point, we will learn that He is one God with different manifestations. All are manifestations of God. Everything you put your finger on is the Truth, but the Truth is not limited to it. It is a Truth with different manifestations, and it is a Truth that has been manifested in various forms. Beings are not separated from God; Someone who believes in their independency is a polytheist. Things are God’s manifestations, but He is not limited to them. In our imagination, we talk to ourselves, answer, fight, are kind, and are angry; these are multiplicities, but in reality, we are ourselves. It is one Nafs and one truth while we see those multiplicities. This world is all the manifestations of the Truth, one is a hellish manifestation, and the other is a heavenly manifestation. No one is independent. It is a unity that encompasses all.
There is one, and there is nothing but Him There is no god except Hu (La Ilaha Illa Hu)
Allameh Hassanzadeh said that one should get out of this idea that there is a God who sits somewhere and angels are around Him. God is one and unique, and all are His manifestations; this is the God that the Quran introduces. But every status has a ruling. We should not get close to the fire because it burns. Fire is Truth, it exists, and it is not false. Humans, heaven, earth, and angels are all Truth. It is one Truth that has appeared in different manifestations. “He is the First and the Last, and the Outer and the Inner”. “To God belong the East and the West. Whichever way you turn, there is God’s face” (Al-Baqara:115). “Say, “He is God, the One. (1) God, the Absolute. (2) He begets not, nor was He begotten. (3) And there is nothing comparable to Him” (Al-Ikhlas:1-4). God is unique. Nothing is like Him. If a person pays attention to himself, he will see that he is wise, a hearer, a seer, a toucher, a smeller, and a taster while he is one person. The world of existence is the same. The truth is like a soul, and the world is like a body; the body accepts good and bad from the soul. Rather, it is superior to these words.
Human Nafs has a degree higher than numerical unity and a higher degree than immateriality. Numerical unity means to be able to count something. We cannot say eye, leg, nose, hand, ear, head, and one Nafs. Nafs include all of these, but It is not limited to any of them. Nafs includes all powers and is the same as all of them.
God is not one type. God cannot be counted. God cannot be pointed. When we say God is one, God is not a numerical one. We have many narrations from Ma’soomin which confirm this. God’s unity is not a numerical one. We cannot say one earth, one sun, one sky, one human, one moon, one angel, and one God. God is Unique. “There is nothing like Him” (Ash-Shura:11). God is one, and there are no two. God is one and unique who encompasses all. There is no place for a second. He is “Ahad”. Allameh Hassanzadeh wrote “Hu” (God) as the first word in his Self-Knowledge book. When this dhikr (remembrance) is repeated, it will manifest for a mystic, and he sees his heart as the mirror of “Hu”. It is possible to reach “Hu” with self-knowledge and vice-versa. There is a higher degree for Nafs than immateriality, which means it is not limited. Nafs has no end, and it is impossible for Nafs to reach a level and say: this is the end. I saw Allameh Hassanzadeh in a dream where there was a massive dam behind him. He told me that 24 years ago, 24000 liters of water had been poured into my existence and still pouring, and I am not full. (one interpretation of water in a dream is knowledge). Allameh said that what we wrote and said, and others said and wrote about me, is a drop from the sea that I have been given.
The holy Quran is the written form of the whole universe, so see what kind of heart the Prophet Muhammad (S) has that accepts all these truths. So, the heart must be limitless because the Qur’an is limitless. Hadith: God the Almighty said: I am not in heaven and earth but in the heart of a believing servant. So, the heart of a believer is so vast that God can manifest in it. Ibn Arabi said: The heart of a mystic is more significant than God’s mercy because it can contain it. Existence is God. There is only one identity, and that person is God. Heaven, hell, satan, earth, angels, and humans are Truth, but Existence has only one personality, and that is God. That’s why we say Personal Unity of Existence. A person will not be a monotheist until he understands these with his heart. Otherwise, he always worships his mental image. God is with all things but pure from them. A mystic said in a poem:
What is my body if my I is You If You are me, then what is my identity
As long as You are me, I am a self-worshiper All my body members prostrate for me
Egoism (Self-seeing) must be removed. All are the Truth, and there is nothing except the Truth. “That is because God is the Reality, and what they invoke besides Him is vanity” (Al-Haj:62). Vanity is our thoughts and imaginations. “The truth has come, and falsehood has withered away; for falsehood is bound to wither away” (Al-Isra:81).
One of the main questions in Masha’s Philosophical idea was God’s Knowledge because they believed God has the knowledge to detail in general ways. This belief caused many unanswered questions. They did not believe in the monotheism of true mystics. They did not understand that self-knowledge can reach us to monotheism. They did not realize that the body, eyes, hands, ears, and all human powers are one identity which is called Nafs or “I”. Apparently, our organs are separate from each other, but in reality, they are manifestations of human Nafs. If we ask one of our fingers who the Nafs or “I” is, it will say that he is a person like me. People are like this; if you ask them about God, they will say that he is a person like us, but with great knowledge and power. Allamah said that two knowledges are essential for a seeker of God’s path: self-knowledge and monotheism. So Human is not a numerical unit, just as God is not a numerical unit. Human Nafs flows in all levels and affairs; it is called by different names at every level. It is the Nafs that accepts these limitations at all levels; at one level is the body, at another level is imagination, and at another level is the intellect. It is the Nafs that flows through all of this. The whole worlds are in unity and alive.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: “The king of all powers in animals are wahm power which perceives detailed meaning, and in fact, the other animal powers are a degree from it, meaning all their perceptions are wahm type perceptions. In contrast, human perceptions are intellect-type perceptions because the intellect is the king of all powers”.
Some philosophical books refer to a part of the brain that is the place of the wahm power, while the wahm power is free from matter, but all our powers are immaterial. The important thing is that it is not possible to determine a place for these powers because an immaterial being does not have a place. In discussing the material occurrence of Nafs, we said that the Nafs arose from matter. It means the matter has reached the status of immateriality as a result of perfection and material changes. The temperament, which was obtained due to matter perfections, has turned into the status of immateriality, and Nafs occurs. Therefore, the Nafs of every creature are based on the temperament that is made of matter. For example, the Nafs of a pigeon differs from the Nafs of a dog and a human. The question is, what is the reason for the difference between the Nafs of animals and humans? The difference is due to the matter and temperament that caused the emergence of the Nafs. The temperament of beings, which is formed from the combination of substances, is the principle of the creation of their Nafs. Therefore, because the Nafs of a pigeon is composed of different materials compared to humans, so, its Nafs is different. In genetics, some manipulate a part of the human being’s DNA so that, for example, the person born does not have pity or has extraordinary power. Since the occurrence of Nafs is from matter, if the ingredients are manipulated, the Nafs will also be different. All the powers of the Nafs have a base in the body. Even our emotions have a base in our body because the body is a lower order of the Nafs. If there is wham power, there is a part of the body that is related to this power. If it is the power of wisdom, there is a part in the body that is the base of the intellect, not for him to reason, but it is a base for the Nafs to reason. Therefore, the brains of complete animals are different from incomplete animals; for example, reptiles such as crocodiles are not playful, but animals such as foxes, deer, and monkeys are playful because their brains are more developed than reptiles. The human temperament is the most complete, so his Nafs is the most complete. In short, all the powers of the Nafs are immaterial, but they have a base in the body, and if this base is destroyed, that force will stop doing what it is supposed to do. This is because the science that a person learns in childhood and adolescence is like carving on a stone, which is permanent, but the science that he learns in old age is like a painting that is on water and disappears. Writing poetry and drawing a plan is the work of the wahm power. The fact that a sheep runs away from a wolf and that animals love their children is the work of wahm power.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: There is a power in humans that combine and separates things; If this power is used by Intellect, we call it thinking; if Wahm uses it, we call it imagination. Memorization and remembrance are one power. The reservoir of partial meanings is called memory, and when the Wahm power uses this treasure to find the answer and to remember the forgotten, it is called remembrance. A series of animals do not have memory; therefore, these animals are not tamed because they cannot retain detailed meanings; for example, a butterfly does not have memory because it approaches the fire, burns, and goes back to it.
The Intellect is the perceiver of the Malakut world (The unseen world, which is the world of souls, the world between the Intellect and material worlds).
If the powers and actions of Nafs are not under intellectual command, they become the doors of hell. “Each of the corrupt morals is a branch of the trees of hell, and whoever is attached to a branch of these trees will lead to hell because that behavior becomes his trait and fixed color, but it has sunk into his essence. Rather, it has become one with him; he is a subsidiary and a branch of hell to which he will refer” (1001 notes Allameh Hassanzadeh). Mulawi Rumi said in a poem:
The mother is looking for her child The origin seeks its branches
If people’s mom is hell, They will follow her
The Holy Quran says, “On the day when We call every nation with their Imams (leaders)” (Al-Isra:71). Some people’s desire is their imam, some people’s demons are their Imam, and some people’s Imam is the Imam of time (Imam Mahdi (AJ)). Prophet Muhammad (S) said: “Generosity is a tree in paradise. Anyone who is generous takes a branch from it. And they keep hold of that branch until they enter paradise. Hatred is a tree in the fire. Miserly is a tree in hell. Whoever is miser takes a branch from it and does not leave it until he enters it”. These are manifestations of heaven and hell. In one interpretation, all creatures are manifestations of heaven and hell, meaning each creature has an origin, whether from heaven or hell.
Allameh Hassanzadeh: “When the powers and agents of the state of existence are not subject to the ruler of the intellect, each of them will destroy man by their desire and selfishness, and chaos and anxiety will occur in this state of existence. The soul in this state is called an anxious soul, and an anxious soul will never reach the desired perfection, which is eternal happiness, and it will not benefit except in misery. If the powers and agents of the state of existence follow the intellect, in this case, it is called the confident soul, which, due to austerity, has brought these powers to its control and has become the absolute ruler over them. It calls each one to its task when it is needed. For example, anger power is necessary for a human being. If a person does not have this power, the human being is incomplete because by having this power, people can ward off adversity and protect themselves from enemies and pests, but the anger power must be like a trained dog, not a wild dog. When the intellect brings peace to the existence of the human being and subjugates it through accepted austerity, the person will have confident Nafs and will be addressed to him: “But as for you, O tranquil soul. (27) Return to your Lord, pleased, and accepted. (28) Enter among My servants. (29) Enter My Paradise (30)” (Al-Fajr:27-30). (Refer to Avicenna’s book of “mystics authorities” and its explanation by Khajeh Tusi for detailed explanation). God Almighty said, “God brought you out of your mothers’ wombs, not knowing anything; and He gave you the hearing, and the eyesight, and the brains; that you may be thankful” (An-Nahl:78). Pay attention to this verse, It says, you did not know anything, but he gave you the hearing, the eyesight, and brain. Meaning these are tools for gaining knowledge. God Almighty said, “The hearing, and the sight, and the brains—all these will be questioned” (Al-Isra:36). “By the time. (1) The human being is in the loss. (2) Except those who believe, and do good works, and encourage truth, and recommend patience. (3)” (Al-Asr:1-3). We need to be careful how we make ourselves during the day and night. I have these as a poem in “Heart Notebook”:
My dear, your life is divine, and the intellect and narrations are the proofs.
Material life subjugates your life, but no one can oppress you except yourself.
Your food becomes mud; why do you eat pond weed like a duck?
You are human; why do you eat dead (animal meat or even fruits)? Why are you away from your table? (Why don’t you eat the truths of the dominion that are alive).
The additions of the world, like selfishness, become your barrier; Why can’t you get your due?
You must be thirsty for closeness to the Friend (God), with having His attributes and Names.
Come, discipline your filthy soul, and ask for your divine life.
The food of ordinary people is the skin, and the food of special people is the brain and how good it is.
With this view, pay attention to straw and wheat, which are food for cows and ordinary people.
Eat food that revives your soul and shines like the sun.
Our mouth and ears are two mouths, one is the mouth of the body, and the other is the mouth of the soul.
Anyone who is a scholar knows that food has a relation to the one who is eating it.
Accelerate from potential to actualization and find your position.
The whole world of the breeze is God’s blessing. You are sick if you hate that breeze.
Because you are friends with your ego and desires, you will never find its pleasant breeze.
Polish the mirror of your heart to see His divine face.
The mirror of your heart is rusted, which makes you unable to see your loved one (Lord).
As much as the mirror is transparent, a person can see his face; the thousands of flowers in the mirror are like a shadow of his garden.
The bigger your mirror is, the more apparent manifestations of the verses and divine essence are.
We must always remember God in all our life. They know an outer aspect of the worldly life, but they are heedless of the Hereafter. This outer is in the hand of the cause of causes. Sheikh Ishraq said: “Recite the Holy Quran as it is descended for you; think deeply with full attention as God speaks to you”. We should love all creations; all are manifestations of God. We should do good to all, even the enemy. We should look at all creations with the eyes of love. Of course, this is easy to say, but it is very difficult to do.
The Mercy and Blessings of God Almighty are so wide, so do not think only believers will go to heaven. “That is the extra grace of God; He bestows it upon whomever He wills. God is Embracing and Knowing” (Al-Ma’ida:54). Imam Baqir (A) said: “Have good faith in God and know that heaven has eight doors, each of which is 400 years old”. Meaning always having faith in God’s mercy and do not limit it to our thinking. If justice is a base, a believer should go first in heaven, but God is “Fazil” meaning he gives extra mercy to whom He will. Narrations from 14 infallibles are interpretations of the Holy Quran and its lower ranks. Khajeh Tusi said, “Ordinary people looking to see miracles but special people looking for a verbal miracle to prove leadership of our 12 Imams”. Allameh Hassanzadeh said, “The dry saints sit at God’s table and are stingy for His mercy”. Avicenna said, “Don’t listen to someone who says that salvation from hellfire and being a member of heaven is reserved for certain people and ignorant and sinful are away from it eternally. Extend God’s mercy to all and do not limit it” (Isharat: Namt7). Salman Sawoji said, “Worshipers rely on their deeds to go to heaven, but we rely on God’s grace”. God said in a narration that “What should I do with a handful of dirt if I do not forgive them?”. The Prophet of God was standing in prayer when a person said in the prayer, “O God, forgive me and Muhammad (S), and do not forgive anyone other than us.” When Prophet Muhammad (S) finished the prayer, he said, “You have narrowed God’s mercy; you must expand it, say. Have mercy on all mankind” (Narration from Sahih Bukhari). A person should have a spread heart and wish happiness for all people, even for his enemy. God’s prophets were the most compassionate to people because they had a spread heart. It was revealed to prophet Moses (A) that you were chosen because you had a kind heart. “That you shall worship none, but God. “I (Prophet) am a warner to you from Him, and a bearer of good news.” (2) “And ask your Lord for forgiveness and repent to Him. He will provide you with good sustenance until a stated term and will bestow His grace on every possessor of virtue. But if you turn away, then I fear for you the punishment of a grievous Day (3)” (Hud:2-3). It is obvious that people fear for people who care about them. In this verse, Prophet Muhammad (S) fears for people who turn away from God. Because “We did not send you except as the mercy to mankind” (Al-Anbiya:107). There is a verse from the Holy Quran that says, “Others are held in suspense, awaiting God’s decree, as to whether He will punish them, or accept their repentance. God is Aware and Wise” (At-Tawba:106). Someone asked Imam Sadiq (A) that, “Is there a status between believers and infidels?” Imam (A) said: “Yes, there is one but more status. If someone becomes an unbeliever (when the truth has reached him), he will be in hell. Between them are people who are awaiting God’s decree. There are “Mustazafun”. There are another group who are “Others have confessed their sins, having mixed good deeds with bad deeds. Perhaps God will redeem them. God is Forgiving and Merciful” (At-Tawba:102). There is also another group, “And between them is a partition, and on the Elevations are men who recognize everyone by their features. They will call to the inhabitants of the Garden, “Peace be upon you.” They have not entered it, but they are hoping” (Al-A’raf:46). (The oppressed are of two groups: one group has a weaker intellect and cannot distinguish between truth and false, and the second is a group with a strong intellect, but the truth has not reached them).
Therefore, in the narrations, it is said that you Shias should do “Taqiyya” (Refraining from expressing an opinion and hiding it or doing something against your heart’s opinion for special reasons). Shia introduction should not be discussed in all gatherings. There is the hope of salvation for them until they do not hear the truth. If the truth is presented to them and they do not accept from you out of enmity and not out of reason, they will be the people of hell. Even in our society, many people think they are Shia because their parents are Shia; they did not become Shia by research. This group is among the “Mustazafun”.
Here is a poem about spreading of God’s mercy:
If you are one of the pure followers of Abraham, why are you stingy in God’s forgiveness?
You cannot see anything but darkness and narrowness through your heart’s narrow and dark eyes.
What is wrong with you that you want to limit God’s mercy?
Are you a divider of God’s mercy? So why are you sitting at the table of God’s mercy and being stingy?
Have you not read the Qur’anic verse about the “Marjoon” (Those who hope for God’s mercy have not done anything)? Why are you still insisting on being stingy?
On the Day of Judgement, when God’s mercy manifests, Satan also will wish for God’s mercy. He says, “O God, forgive me as you forgive everyone.” Some people think that because they worship, the rest of the people should be far from the mercy of God. If God’s justice is carried out in a strict audit, they will all be sinners. A poem says, “If they are going to catch the drunks (Sinners) in the city, they will catch all the people (The story of Prophet Jesus (A) for stoning a woman ). A poor person was praying that “O God would You give him a cow so that my life would be better”. God said: “We will give you a cow and sheep for your neighbor”. He said, God no, I don’t want a cow!!! God’s mercy includes hell, Satan, the infidels, and polytheists who have appeared in this world.
All praise is to God to the extent that He deserves it.
– أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ
 -فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَىٰ ﴿٣٧﴾ وَآثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا ﴿٣٨﴾ فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ ﴿٣٩﴾
– لَهَا سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَّقْسُومٌ
 -وَقَالُوا لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِي أَصْحَابِ السَّعِيرِ
– وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ ﴿٤٠﴾ فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ
 -الرضا باب الله الاعظم
 -جهاد اکبر
 -وَإِذْ زَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ وَقَالَ لَا غَالِبَ لَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَإِنِّي جَارٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكُمْ إِنِّي أَرَىٰ مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
– مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ
 -دور و (تسلسل)
 -قوه خیال
 -قوه وهم
– وَلَمَّا فَصَلَتِ الْعِيرُ قَالَ أَبُوهُمْ إِنِّي لَأَجِدُ رِيحَ يُوسُفَ ۖ لَوْلَا أَن تُفَنِّدُونِ
– وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَتَعْرِفُونَهَا
 -قوه مصوره
 -فلاسفه مشاء
 -کتاب شفاء
 -کتاب اشارات
 -عرفان و حکمت متعالیه
 -عقل مستفاد
 -وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ
 -وحدت شخصی وجود
– وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَٰهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَٰهٌ
 -هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ
 -لا اله الا هو
 -وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ
 -قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ﴿١﴾ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ ﴿٢﴾ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ ﴿٣﴾ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ ﴿٤﴾
 -لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ
 -ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ
 -جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ
 -يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ
 -يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ ﴿٢٧﴾ ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً ﴿٢٨﴾ فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي ﴿٢٩﴾ وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي ﴿٣٠﴾
– وَاللَّهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّن بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
 -إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا
 – وَالْعَصْرِ ﴿١﴾ إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ ﴿٢﴾ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ ﴿٣﴾
 -ذَٰلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
– ذو فاضل
 -أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّنِي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ ﴿٢﴾ وَأَنِ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ ثُمَّ تُوبُوا إِلَيْهِ يُمَتِّعْكُم مَّتَاعًا حَسَنًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى وَيُؤْتِ كُلَّ ذِي فَضْلٍ فَضْلَهُ ۖ وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ كَبِيرٍ ﴿٣﴾
 -وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ
 -وَآخَرُونَ مُرْجَوْنَ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِمَّا يُعَذِّبُهُمْ وَإِمَّا يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
 -وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ خَلَطُوا عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَآخَرَ سَيِّئًا عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
 -وَبَيْنَهُمَا حِجَابٌ ۚ وَعَلَى الْأَعْرَافِ رِجَالٌ يَعْرِفُونَ كُلًّا بِسِيمَاهُمْ ۚ وَنَادَوْا أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ أَن سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ لَمْ يَدْخُلُوهَا وَهُمْ يَطْمَعُونَ
 -آخرون مرجون
Tag: Allah, God, Existence, Quran, Prophet Muhammad (S), Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali (A), Imam Sadiq (A), Allameh Hassanzadeh Amoli, Ibn Arabi, Khajeh Nasir Tusi, Eternal, Self-Knowledge, Angel, Nafs, Barzakh, Methal, Khial, Intellect, Malakut, Hereafter, Resurrection, Heaven, Hell, Monotheism, Non-Existence, Daur, Ma’ad, Qiyama.