Chapter 5: Gathering Creatures in the Day of Resurrection
Chapter 5: Gathering Creatures in the Day of Resurrection
This chapter explains the gathering of the actions of creatures in the Day of Resurrection. Mulla Sadra (RA) in his book “Asfar” also used this chapter from Khajeh Nasir Ad-Din Tusi (RA) and explained it.
“Human Nafs is a truth from Hayula (Hyle) in the material world, but it is Hayula (Hyle) for forms in the Hereafter”
We discussed in the introduction of self-knowledge that, our body or Material World is the lowest degree of existence. Above the material world, we have Methal World (for example, shapes in our dream), Above that, we have the Intellect World which perceives generalized truths such as knowledge (They do not have matter and shape). Above that, we have a super Intellect world that is free from limitation and quiddity. Human Nafs is one identity that includes different levels of existence. Nafs, performs actions by the body. We discussed that Nafs that is free from matter, it only occurs when matter reaches a specific perfection. It means, matter by substance motion gains perfections until it reaches the level which is free from matter, and we call it Nafs. Nafs is the fruit of the matter. Again, after perfection in the Methal world, it reaches the Intellect level. As we said, Human Nafs is a truth that has different levels of existence, Material, Methal, Intellect, and Super Intellect.
What does it mean when we say human Nafs is a form of Hayula (Hyle) in the Material World?
“Sura” or form has different meanings in Arabic, one meaning is, “the truth or perfection of a thing”. “Hayula” is an Arabic word from the Greek “Hyle” word. A technical term in philosophy derived from the Greek hyle (matter), opposed to sura (form). Usually used in the sense of the prime matter that all forms in the world are sustained by it or fully dependent on it. It does not have any forms or shapes but can accept all the forms. So, Matter with “Harikat Johari” or “Substance Motion” reaches a level that is free from matter. Human Immaterial Nafs is a form of “Hayula” in this world but in the Hereafter our Nafs will be Hayula for different forms.
“Hayula” does not have any shape or form but accepts different forms. For instance, pottery clay is Hayula for all different objects made by a potter. All shapes and forms that we see in this world like humans, animals, and trees have a Hayula that is the principle of them. “Hayula” never can be without form. So, one of the things that Hayula accepts to be is our Nafs in this world. In the Hereafter human Nafs will be Hayula for different things that we perceive there like angels, trees, wolves, honey, etc. Whatever forms we see in the Hereafter is a form of our Nafs. Meaning, Nafs will get different forms. For example, it can get a wolf’s shape, a castle’s shape, or beautiful scenery. So, Hayula is a being with no forms.
There are three main beliefs for human Nafs.
1- Nafs occurs from matter and survives with the matter. Meaning after death our Nafs will be destroyed. In this belief, a lot of questions will arise with no answer.
2- Nafs occur immaterially or spiritually. Meaning, Nafs is separated from the matter and later joins the matter. The question here would be how we are going to have one identity and also why my soul joins this body and not another body or maybe an animal. Avicenna said: “we do not know the reason”.
3- Nafs occurs from matter but will survive without matter forever. Mula Sadra said: “Human body grows and gains a specific level of perfection in which Nafs occurs. Nafs is one identity that has a different level of existence. Nafs and body are not completely two separate things. We are one identity that has different levels of existence (material and immaterial). When we lose our body in this world, we get another body for the Hereafter.
Nafs has a body proportional in each world. It is not possible to have Nafs without a body. Meaning, Nafs has a material body in the material world, a Methali body in the Hereafter. As discussed, our bodies in the Hereafter are the ones that we made in worldly life with our knowledge and actions. Some Nafs are weak as a fly’s Nafs. “Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading” (Al-Qamar:7). “It is the Day when people will be like moths, dispersed” (Al-Qari’a:4). Since people did not gain perfection by knowledge and actions their Nafs are like locusts and moths.
In this worldly life, we have human bodies but if we can see the Hereafter each of us will have different bodies that are made by our knowledge and actions. Some would be like beautiful humans, and some would be like animals. The key point is that if some people get animal bodies, still we will be able to recognize them. In reality, our bodies in the Hereafter are the manifestations of our Nafs. In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad (S) said: “In the Hereafter some people of my nation will be such that monkeys and pigs are beautiful compared to them”. Allameh Hassan Zadeh said: “O God, People see predator animals in the desert, but Hassan sees them on the street. Meaning, his Methal vision is open, and he can see people’s faces as they are in the Hereafter”.
From time to time some evil thinking comes to people’s minds. All of these thoughts are from human Nafs. In this world, these evil thoughts exist in people’s minds but in the Hereafter, People see in reality that for example, a wolf bit them and feel extreme pain. The bodies that we see in the Hereafter are the forms that occur from human’s temperaments which were formed in worldly life.
A tradition from Prophet Muhammad (S) says: “This world is the farm for the Hereafter”. The Hereafter is the time for harvesting the seeds that we planted in this world. For some people beautiful castles, scenery grows but for others, there will be a zoo of predators and hell. Allameh Hassan Zadeh said: “predator animals that people will see in the Hereafter are the forms and shapes of their temperament which they formed in worldly life”. “An appropriate recompense” (An-Naba’:26).
The gathering of People in the Hereafter is based on their actions and temperament. Even our intentions affect our Nafs, and we will be punished or rewarded based on those intentions. “To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Whether you show what is within yourselves or conceal it, Allah will bring you to account for it. Then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent” (Baqara:284).
It is important to note that you will not be accounted for evil thoughts that come to your mind, but you are responsible for your intentions whether you do them or not.
When we want to define something, we make limitations. We take out other things from its domain to define something. For example, He is the son of Mark. Meaning he is not the son of John, Mathew, or others. We define a thing using Genus (Jins – جنس) and Differentia (Fasl – فصل).
In Scholastic logic, a Genus is one of the Predicables. Predicable (Lat. praedicabilis, that which may be stated or affirmed, sometimes called quinque voces or five words) is, in scholastic logic, a term applied to a classification of the possible relations in which a predicate may stand to its subject. It is not to be confused with ‘praedicamenta’, the scholastics’ term for Aristotle’s ten categories. Genus is that part of a definition that is also predicable of other things different from the definiendum. In Scholastic logic, a Differentia is one of the Predicables. Differentia is part of a definition that states the whatness of things that makes it what it is: e.g., a triangle is a three-sided rectilinear figure.
For example, A human is an animal that speaks. In this definition of a human, Animal would be Genus and speak is Differentia. The animal is a word that includes different types of animals like tiger, horse, and human. What is the differentiator between humans and animals is called Differentia which is “speaking”.
So, under Genus, we have types. For example, if someone says an animal is coming, we understand a living creature that moves is coming to us, but we do not know which type of animal is that. We need an extra definition that can specify what type of creature it is. So, if someone says an animal that speaks is coming then it will be clear for us that a human is coming. Under humans we have different people, and we do not know exactly who is coming, is it, John or Mark?
With the above explanation, we would be able to say an animal is a “Genus”, human is a “type” of animal, speaking is a “differentia” and under human we have individuals. Another example, Car is a “Genus”, Tesla is a “type”, and the first electric car is a “differentia” and under Tesla, we have VIN individuals.
With all the above explanation we would like to explain this sentence, “In this world, Human is a “type” which has individuals beneath him, but in the Hereafter, Human is a “Genus” which beneath him there are different types”. Meaning in the Hereafter we would have a human that is a wolf, a human that is a tiger and human that is a human, and so on. There would be humans with different types of animals. In other words, people are making themselves with their actions and some people in the Hereafter become for example a human which is the wolf type. This is true only for humans who can be animals, angels, and even higher than angels or worse than animals.
In the Hereafter people with similar attributes gather together. “The day the Trumpet will be blown, and you will come in groups”. People will be with the ones that they love and are similar. “[Mention, O Muhammad], the Day We will call forth every people with their Imam. Then whoever is given his record in his right hand – those will read their books, and injustice will not be done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside the date seed]” (Al-Isra:71). So, we should try to not spend time with evil/corrupt people as we get colored by them. This is God’s order in the Holy Quran, “So turn from those who turn away from Our Remembrance and only desire this present life. (29) That is all they have of knowledge. Your Lord knows best who has strayed from His Path, and those who are guided” (An-Najm:28-29). And also says, “And keep yourself (O Muhammad) patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and afternoon, seeking His Face; and let not your eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp and glitter of the life of the world; and obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, and who follows his own lusts, and whose affair has been lost” (Al-Kahf:28).
Usually, we have a chapter in most moral Islamic books that discusses the benefits of solitude. This is different than monasticism in other religions and we do have monasticism in Islam. Traditions from 14 Ma’soomin (infallible) say that if you do not have work out of your home do not go out and stay at your home. When humans get close physically to other people, they will affect their souls.
The Hereafter bodies that we gain from this world are free from matter and are alive by Nafs.
Allameh Hassan Zadeh said, “It is important to note that, the Hereafter’s bodies that we gain from this world are free from matter and are alive by Nafs”. Matter is an obstacle to perceptions. Therefore, the joys and the pains in this world are weaker than the Hereafter because we do not have obstacles (matter) for perceptions. For example, if a shirt of heaven is brought up here, everyone becomes unconscious. The heaven that people will see in the Hereafter is alive because Nafs is alive. Meaning, birds, castles, rivers, and other things that people see in heaven depend on the Nafs, they are alive because Nafs is alive. Even if you see prophets or Imams, they are sustained and maintained by Nafs. Meaning, all those shapes depend on our soul or Nafs.
Humans can create things in their minds which are fully dependent on humans. As long as there is the attention they exist. We can reach a spiritual level that would be able to create things in the physical world or people’s Methal world. This is one of the branches of witchery.
Humans have a common sense which is called “Phantasia” in Greek. Islamic philosophers describe this as a place where all Methal perceptions happen. It is like a lake that is connected to 5 physical senses and also to the intellect level. This is a level of our Methal power. All shaped perceptions will happen in common sense. This is like a lake that 5 rivers from the material world and a river from the intellectual world are connected to it and fill the lake. All our perception from this worldly life or the Hereafter is happening there. When we sleep 5 rivers from the Material world are dry and have nothing to add to the lake, so we see whatever already is in the lake or we will see the shaped truth from the intellectual world. As we discussed this a bit in the introduction of the self-knowledge essay, perceptions need to be free from matter, or in other words, we do not have perception in the material world. Meaning, when this lake is calm, we would be able to see shaped truths like angels, heaven, hell, or the face of humans in the Hereafter.
Now, whomever that his or her Methal power becomes strong can influence the common sense of other people. They can show them things that do not exist in the material world. For example, in the story of sorcerers of Fir’on in the Holy Quran, they dropped their sticks and ropes on the floor and people saw them as real snakes. In the material world, there were no real snakes.
“[Fir’on] said: “If you have come with a sign, show it forth, if you are one of those who tell the truth.” (106) Then [Musa] threw his staff and behold! it was a [Thu`ban] serpent, manifest! (107) And he drew out his hand and behold! it was white (with radiance) for the beholders. (108) The chiefs of the people of Fir’on said: “This is indeed a well-versed sorcerer.” (109) “He wants to get you out of your land, so what do you advise” (110) They said: “Put him and his brother off (for a time) and send callers to the cities to collect” (111) “That they bring to you all well-versed sorcerers.” (112) And so, the sorcerers came to Fir’on. They said: “Indeed there will be a (good) reward for us if we are the victors.” (113) He said: “Yes, and moreover you will (in that case) be of the nearest (to me).” (114) They said: “O Musa! Either you throw (first), or shall we have the (first) throw” (115) He [Musa] said: “Throw you (first).” So, when they threw, they bewitched the eyes of the people and struck terror into them, and they displayed a great trick. (116) And We revealed to Musa (saying): “Throw your stick,” and behold! It swallowed up straight away all the falsehood which they showed. (117) Thus, the truth was confirmed, and all that they did was made of no effect. (118) So, they were defeated there and returned disgraced. (119) And the sorcerers fell down prostrate. (120) They said, “We have believed in the Lord of the Worlds.” (121) “The Lord of Moses and Aaron.” (122) Fir’on said, “Did you believe in Him before I have given you permission? This is surely a conspiracy you schemed in the city, in order to expel its people from it. You will surely know.” (123) “I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides; then I will crucify you all.” (124) They said, “It is to our Lord that we will return.” (125) “You are taking vengeance on us only because we have believed in the signs of our Lord when they have come to us.” “Our Lord! Pour out patience upon us and receive our souls in submission.” (126)”(Al-A’raf:106-126).
In this story, using their common sense they showed people some snakes which did not exist in the physical world. Another verse of the Quran says that those were imagined (“yukhayel”) for them. This is why the Methal world is also called the Khial world.
“They said, “O Moses, either you throw, or we will be the first to throw.” (65) He said, “You throw.” And suddenly, their ropes and sticks appeared to him, because of their magic, to be crawling swiftly. (66) So, Moses felt apprehensive within himself. (67) We said, “Do not be afraid, you are the uppermost. (68) Now throw down what is in your right hand—it will swallow what they have crafted. What they have crafted is only a magician’s trickery. But the magician will not succeed, no matter what he does.” (69) And the magicians fell down to prostrate. They said, “We have believed in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.” (70) He said, “Did you believe in him before I have given you permission? He must be your chief, who has taught you magic. I will cut off your hands and your feet on alternate sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of the palm trees. Then you will know which of us is more severe in punishment, and more lasting.” (71) They said, “We will not prefer you to the proofs that have come to us, and Him who created us. So, issue whatever judgment you wish to issue. You can only rule in this lowly life. (72) We have believed in our Lord, so that He may forgive us our sins, and the magic you have compelled us to practice. God is Better, and more Lasting.” (73)” (Ta-Ha:65-73).
Telepathy or transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction also is a branch of Khial or Methal power. For example, someone likes to invite his friend to his house then he concentrates on his friend in the Khial or Methal to invite him to his house. All of a sudden, his friend feels that he would like to go to his house. It depends on how strong the Khial is or the Methal power of the person. People that have strong Khial power can talk without speaking to each other. That is why some strong mystics can talk to each other, but other people think they are quiet.
When Nafs becomes strong, a person can create things in the physical world similar to when he was making things in his or other people’s Khial or Methal world. For example, he is able to move things around, burn things or blast a light bulb with his attention. The important point is that these actions have nothing to do with true mysticism and monotheism. Because just as with sport our bodies become strong, our Nafs can become strong with practices and concentrations. Even though a true mystic can reach this level, his main goal is monotheism and seeing God (“Leqa Allah”). A complete mystic can reach a level in which he would be able to create bodies like himself and send them to different places. Those bodies are dependent on his soul similar to things in heaven and hell that are dependent on our Nafs.
The Hereafter is like this worldly life but since there is no matter, there would not be any obstacle and our perceptions such as joy and pain would be stronger. In this world, our nervous system is only capable of transferring a limited amount of pain and that is the reason why people whose hand is cut in wars cannot feel the pain at first. Another example that shows material obstacles for perceptions is our hearing system, through which we can only hear specific ranges of frequencies.
Actions in the worldly life are material for our Hereafter body
Our actions in this world are material that makes heaven or hell for us. A person was saying to me that he was thinking about the Hereafter, He was in heaven and saw his mother, and asked her where is his father? She replied, he was not a heavenly guy, and he is in hell. People think the Hereafter is like here, they do not know that whatever they see there is from themselves and made by themselves. If they see rivers, honey, mountains, and castles, in reality, those are within themselves. Rules in the Hereafter are different from this world. The wife of one of our friends married soon after he died, and we were mad about that. I saw my friend in a dream and he told me, here is not the way that you think. “When the Horn is blown, no relations between them will exist on that Day, and they will not ask after one another” (Al-Mu’minun:101).
Our knowledge makes our souls
The soul has a higher degree than the body because knowledge has a higher degree than actions. If knowledge and action join it would make a perfect human. Mulla Sadra has a beautiful example: Knowledge is like a paralyzed human and action is like a blind human. One of them cannot walk and one of them cannot see. If the blind person carries the paralyzed person, jointly they can walk and see. Meaning we can make ourselves perfect humans with knowledge and actions. A hadith says “Knowledge is Imam (Guide) of action”.
Prophet Muhammad (S) said: in “Me’raj” (ascension), I saw some angels that were making castles and then stopped for a while then started again. I asked angel Gabriel: “Why are they not working?” Angel Gabriel replied: “Because they have not yet received the material for the castles. I asked, “What is the material?” and the angel Gabriel replied: “Remembering God”. On the way back from “Me’raj” (ascension), Prophet Muhammad (S) saw that some gardens are burning, He asked why are they burning? Angel Gabriel replied because the person sinned.
10 Categories (Aristotle)
Most people, when confronted with a new being or understanding a new concept, naturally try to make a connection between this new being and their past data, and to place the new subject in the previous categories of their mind; For example, when “fungi” were first discovered, because of their shape and color, most scientists thought that fungi were a group of plants, but over time, with the discovery of how fungi reproduce, it became clear that these creatures are neither plants nor animals. Rather, fungi form a separate group in living beings.
Because philosophers and logicians of the past found such a process to recognize new beings and to define new and correct subjects, they tried hard to be able to provide a correct and complete division of all beings in the universe for themselves and others. When humans encounter a new creature, they can quickly and accurately compare and identify it and discover its characteristics. These efforts of philosophers and logicians created a debate called “Ten Categories“ in logic and philosophy in which the same general division of the universe was attempted.
The treatise “Qatigorias” or “Categories of the Ten” was known as the first section of the book of Organon and one of the most important logical treatises of Aristotle before Ferfurius added the section “Five Generalities” to the beginning of “Organon”; Of course, some logicians had doubts about the attribution of “Qatigorias” to Aristotle, but most commentators on his work accepted this attribution and began their explanations with this book. In a medieval period when the church banned the teaching of logic and philosophy, it soon allowed the teaching of this because it felt that the contents of this section were in line with the teachings of the church; So after a while, some people thought that the “Ten Categories” are the main part of logic and maybe all of it; For this reason, after Ferfurius added the chapter “Isaguji” or “Five Generalities” to logic, some people thought that the “Five Generalities ” was a prelude to the chapter on the “Ten Categories” and not the whole logic.
This attention to the ten categories and emphasis on it in the logic continued until the entry of logic into the Islamic world, but it did not take long for Muslim logicians to discuss the subject and scope of logic and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), who is perhaps the greatest Muslim logician. For the first time, claimed: “There is no need for” ten categories” in logic, and a logic student can read logic without knowing the ten categories”; this theory of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was accepted by commentators and logicians, and his argument for this was later further explained by Khawaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi; The ten categories are generally discussed in philosophy and not in logic.
In the terminology of logicians and philosophers, what is said in response to the question “what is that?” is called a “category”; In simpler terms, when we ask what an object is? We have asked the “category” of that object and the answer we hear is the “category” of that object; For example, someone who has never seen a “parakeet” asks what a “parakeet” is? the answer to him would be a parakeet is a bird. Meaning, a bird is a category in which the parakeet is one of its types, and so all objects have a category. Now, if the same person has never seen a bird and asks what a bird is, the answer is that a bird is an animal that has certain characteristics such as the ability to fly; So the bird, in turn, is a “species” of a higher category called an “animal,” and so each category is a “subset” or a “species” for a higher “category”; This series of categories goes up in the same way until we reach a category where this category is no longer a type for any category higher than itself, in other words, this category is the starting point of all categories and no other category can be found above it; These 10 categories above which there are no other categories are called “Primary Quiddity” or “Mahhiyat Awalieh”.
Aristotle divided the 10 categories into two main subcategories at first glance; The first are categories that do not rely on anything else to exist, such as objects and animals like wood, stone, birds, etc. These are all categories that are conceivable by themselves and do not need anything else, but the second subcategory has categories that must be conceived by another object and cannot exist as itself. For example, color is of the second category, meaning that color alone cannot exist, but an object is required to determine the color for that object, and if there is no object, color is meaningless; Size, volume, etc. are also like the second subcategory. According to Aristotle, all the categories of the first subcategory return to a basic category, which Aristotle calls “Ousia”, “Essence” or “Johar”, and the categories of the second subcategory, which are dependent categories, are called “Araz” and in general, they refer to the remaining ten categories, so the “Ten Categories” include (essence/substance) upon which the remaining nine categories (“Araz”) are dependent. Each category is explained below:
Essence (Substance) or “Johar”: As has been said, “substance” is the first of the ten categories to which the categories of all objects and animals lead to; Therefore, if we go to the top series of categories of each object and living thing, we will finally reach the category of “Essence or Substance”; Meaning, “Essence” is that which is the theme of all independent beings and living things. Logicists first identify five types of Essence or Johar and then divide each type into different types so that this division includes all objects and living things and clarifies the position of each being in relation to the essence and other beings.
In philosophy, “Substance” or “Johar” means essence and in some texts, it is referred to as the essence of existence. In Western philosophy and Islamic philosophy, the substance is referred to as a self-sustaining being Unlike “Araz”, which requires another creature. The difference between the concept of substance in Western philosophy and Islamic philosophy is that in the West the categories are for “Existence” and in Islamic philosophy, the categories are for “Quiddity” or “Mahiyat”.
Nine Categories “Araz”
Quantity: The first category of “Araz” is “Quantity”, which literally means “size” and “value”. Therefore, any transverse category that has a value or can be measured is considered a “Quantity” category, such as numbers, perimeter, weight, etc., which are all measurable and have value.
Quality: The second category of “Araz” literally means state and quality, and any category that returns to the state or quality will be in this category; For example, the cold or warmth of objects or their whiteness and blackness and even the sadness and happiness of people are all from the category of Quality.
Relative: The third category of “Araz” is Relative which means the relation of an object to other objects or the relation of each component to another component; For example, straightness or curviness or all the features that have strength and weakness.
Where: It means which place, but it is used as “being in a certain place”. Therefore, any category that returns to the place and location of objects is considered as this category. For example, being high or being inside something or being under something, etc. are all in this category.
When: It means “at a certain time”, so the categories related to the time of objects eventually return to the category of “When”; For example, being late, or early. Being at a specific time is all about the “When” category.
Having or Ownership: It means to have and be with; For example, having clothes, owning a house, etc., which indicate an ownership relationship between two beings, are all in the category of “Having”.
Doing: It means the effect of one object on another, that is, everything that happens in the world is actually of the category of “Doing” or action, for example, the act of burning, stealing, etc.
Being Affected: Passivity or inactivity is exactly the opposite of “Doing” and means influenced, so whenever there is a category of a “Doing”, there must be a category of “Being Affected” or passivity, so all the examples given for the “Doing” in the passive state are examples of passivity, such as being set on fire, stolen and etc.
“Extra” or “Additional”: It has one of the important categories and, it can cover all nine other “Araz” categories; The category “extra” means that a subject finds meaning in relation to another subject, for example, being a father means only when there is a child, otherwise being a father is meaningless, so the father-child relationship is an “extra” relationship. Or full color means when it is colored, otherwise the full color is meaningless, so the full color is an “Extra” category.
Allameh Hassan Zadeh said: “Knowledge and action are higher than “10 Categories” and they are the identity of human existence, meaning knowledge with knower and action with doer are united. In simple terms a perfect human Nafs is unlimited.
“What is knowledge”
Is knowledge one of the categories of “Araz”? Meaning is our Nafs a Johar or substance that knowledge is connected to? Is knowledge for example like whiteness? As we discussed whiteness cannot exist on its own and there should be a thing that is white. Even the white color that we buy from the store is a chemical that is white. Can knowledge exist on its own or is it like whiteness? Is knowledge a substance? This was and still is a very important topic of discussion in philosophy.
Mula Sadra said: “Existence in our mind is manifestation or appearance of our Nafs. It is the action of Nafs. Knowledge is not a category of “Araz”. Knowledge is the emergence of Nafs. Because Nafs and knowledge are united and Nafs is a “Johar or substance” then Knowledge is a “Johar or substance”.
What is the meaning of knowledge? We can define it as the presence or obtaining of a figure or meaning of a thing for a knowing person”. A “figure” is the physical shape of a thing. An example of a figure is a glass; when we look at a glass, its figure is obtained by us (our “I” or “Nafs”). A “meaning of a thing” refers to abstract concepts; love, power, and hate are concepts that have meanings instead of a figure. Again: the presence of a figure or a meaning for us is called knowledge.
We have two types of knowledge. 1 – knowledge by presence or consciousness, and 2 – obtained knowledge.
Assume you see a house. To have knowledge of this house, its figure needs to be present or obtained by you. Is the figure’s actual size inside your brain? Some might say that its figure becomes very small so it can fit inside our brain, and then we see it. If this were true, then our brain would see that small size, not the actual size of the house. However, we see the house in its actual size, not in the small size that would fit in our brain. Assume the figure of the house does become very small, like the size of a cell, and goes to our brain. The question is, who will perceive it? It needs to be present or obtained by someone. Who is that person? Is it another cell? We proved that, in the matter, we cannot find any real “one” with the ability to perceive. For example, a cell is made up of many molecules, a molecule is made up of atoms, and an atom is made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons. If the particle has dimension, then it can be divided so that one part of the particle is absent from the other side of the particle, and this goes on and on. As a result, you can see this figure, but if you were a matter, you would not be able to perceive the figure. One side of the wall is absent from another side of the wall, one side of a paper is absent from the other side.
Some might say the figure of the house is converted to electrical pulses in our brain and then we see it. Yes, we 100% agree with this part, but the questions are, 1- Who will perceive it? and 2- How do we see it with its actual size? Our eyes and brain are tools we use to perceive the figure. Always remember: “presence and obtaining of a figure or a meaning of a thing for a knowing person” is knowledge.
Another question: who will perceive the meaning of love and power? They do not have a physical shape and we cannot make them small figures to go to our brain. They also do not have size or weight. Can you pour some knowledge into a glass? No; therefore, you cannot physically put knowledge in your brain. Can we divide knowledge? No, but we can divide a brain or a cell. If knowledge is within the brain or cell, then when we divide the brain or cell, the knowledge should also be divided. Therefore, we can conclude that 1- knowledge is not in our brain 2- knowledge is not made of matter. The place of knowledge is in our “I” (this will be explained later).
According to a physician, knowledge is converted to codes and pulses which go inside our brain so that we see, hear, and understand things. A simple question would be: who perceives those codes? Is it you or your Nafs or soul that perceives it and, as we proved, Nafs is free from the matter.
Avicenna proved, the only way to perceive physical things is to make them free from the matter. Mulla Sadra accepted Avicenna’s discussion that it is necessary for the perception that a thing to be free from the matter. But he explained this much deeper. Mulla Sadra said: “It is not like that figures and shapes of a thing become free from the matter and then unite with our Nafs. When electrical pulses come to the brain, Nafs create shapes and figures (that are free from the matter) within itself based on the brain’s electrical pulses. In reality Eyes, Ears, or other human senses, and the brain are tools for Nafs to create things within itself. Basically, Nafs is the creator not like the cinema screen that things come there.
Let’s explain it by an example; when a thing is close to us, the light is reflected from it and comes with specific frequency ranges to our eyes. The eyes’ nervous system will send electrical impulses to our brain. Materialists believe that the brain perceives it, but we proved for many reasons our brains are a tool for perception and Nafs is the perceiver. Assume we touch a very hot thing, and our hands burn. If the brain was the perceiver, it should burn whereas electrical impulses come to the brain, not hotness. So, Nafs creates the shape of a thing within itself based on electrical impulses that come to the brain. Because Nafs has “present knowledge” from itself, then it will have knowledge of the shape of a thing. In fact, the shapes of things unite with Nafs. It is not two things but one thing (Nafs) and its emergence.
When a revelation descends, it becomes like the existence of a perfect human. Angel Gabriel (A) became united with the perfect human. “She screened herself away from them, and We sent to her Our spirit, and He appeared to her as an immaculate human” (Maryam:17). Meaning if there was someone nearby lady Maryam (A), would not be able to see the Spirit because the Angel was manifested in her Nafs. Similar to when we see someone in a dream, another person who is near us cannot see him. We emphasize again that we must think deeply about “Unity of perceiver and perceived”. The intellect level of Prophet Muhammad (S) becomes united with the Intellect level of Angel Gabriel and the Methal level of Prophet Muhammad (S) becomes united with the Methal level of Angel Gabriel (A). When we use the word “united” do not think these are two different things that become united but perceived things become you. It is important to note that a glass that we see outside will be like us, but its shape becomes united or precisely like us. The shape of glass becomes present for us and since we know ourselves, we know the glass. Mulla Sadra said: “People think they are in heaven or hell, but I would say heaven and hell are in us”. Meaning our Nafs is very wide. Human Nafs can be small as insects or can be wide as angel Gabriel (A). Imam Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali (A) said: “You think you are a small creature, while the whole world lies within you”. “When the beasts are gathered” (At-Takwir:5).
Allameh Hassan Zadeh said: “I have written In the Note#36 of the book “1001 Notes”, Proving our Nafs is immaterial is proving the Hereafter and proving the unity of perceiver and perceived is proving the rewards and punishment in the Hereafter.
If we prove that Nafs is immaterial and therefore will not annihilate after death, then we proved the Hereafter. The easiest way to prove that Nafs is immaterial would be by the dreams. When we sleep, we do not perceive things using our senses but in the dream, we see, smell, taste, or hear things. Who is seeing or hearing in dreams? The human Nafs perceives things without material senses. Similarly, when we die, we perceive without the material senses. Allameh Hassan Zadeh wrote 100 reasons that prove Nafs is immaterial in “Ganjineh Gohar Rawan” book.
One of the reasons that a thing becomes destroyed is to have parts. Because when parts are separated from each other the shape of the object is destroyed. For example, when we separate all pages of a book, it destroys or if we separate all atoms of a page, it becomes destroyed. Since the matter has different parts, with the separation of the parts its shape will be dismantled. So, when a thing becomes immaterial it becomes without parts and it will exist forever. For example, we cannot separate knowledge and love because they are immaterial things and exist forever. So, we (our Nafs) will exist forever after death and separation from the material body.
As we discussed based on the unity of perceiver and perceived, whatever we perceive via senses must be united by us (Nafs). The things themselves cannot be united but their immaterial shapes would be united with us for perception. Since we perceive ourselves, we would be able to perceive whatever is united with us. Any knowledge, beliefs, good or bad deeds even a smile to our family will be united with us. Because our Nafs exists forever, our deeds and knowledge would exist forever. As we said, knowledge is the spirit, and our actions would be materials that make our bodies in the Hereafter. I am sure, you noticed when you do some good deeds you feel pleased within yourself, this is because of the unity of perceived and perceiver. Since we are occupied with worldly life, we cannot really understand these truths but when we separate from our material bodies, these truths will be clear for us.
It is worth mentioning that even though philosophy itself can rationally prove the Hereafter, rewards, and punishments but it would be very general. In each subject, philosophy only can talk in general and is not capable of proving detailed subjects. For example, with rational reasoning, we would be able to prove Prophecy and Imamat in general, but we would not be able to prove that a specific person is a prophet or Imam with rational reasonings. If we look at the philosophy books that have not used Quran, narrations, and mystical intuitions, they are able to prove only the general aspect of the Hereafter. Details cannot be understood by the intellect. This is why Mulla Sadra in “Asfar” book used some narrations and mystic intuitions in the Hereafter chapter explanation.
Time is the cause of change and place is the cause of multiplicities
Time is the cause of change because a material thing cannot be the same at different times. For some objects the change is fast but for some is slow. It is because of the time that we see a tree is growing and changing moment by moment or it is because of the time that we see hydrocarbons created from plant and animal fossils that have been formed by the forces of temperature and weight over millennia. So, when there is no time, there is no change. That is the reason why we say immaterial creatures like angels cannot change. That is the reason why God Almighty is not changing because He is the creator of time. If anyone can exit from time, they can become eternal. Allameh Hassan Zadeh said, “O my God, I exited from the container of time, and I am placed above it”.
To clarify the subject of time a little more, consider this example: “If we paint a rope in many colors and place an ant on it to move, the ant will first pass white, then red, black, green, yellow, white, red, and also the other colors till it reaches to the end of the rope”. In this case, there will be time for the ant, but for us, looking from above, this before and after no longer exists because we see all the colors in one place. Because the material world is constantly changing moment by moment and events occur one after the other then days, weeks, years, and time come for us. If someone looks at the “Material World” from above (out of time), everything is present for him/her. That is why in the Non-Material World, all truths are present together and there is no change, movement, or occurrence. So, for the angels, time or motion similar to what we have in this world cannot be imagined. Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (A) said in Nahj al-Balaghah that “God does not change from one state to another”. Because if this were the case, God Almighty would be under time.
The place is one cause for multiplicities in one moment. It is possible to have the same pens in different places. If there is no place, there can be only one thing at any moment.
We learned before that we have three major types of perception:
- Sensory perception: like seeing a tree in the physical world (It has matter and also a figure).
- Khiali perception: like seeing a tree in our dreams or imagining a tree in our minds (It does not have matter but has a figure).
- Rational perception: like understanding the meaning of “tree” (it does not have matter or a figure).
In the above example, we only have one tree in the rational world which has no time and place. That is the reason why we only have one truth from each creature. These rational truths in philosophy are called “Rab An-Nu’ “. Humans also have a rational truth which is called “The first Adam”. Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali (A) said, “I am the first Adam”. Allameh Hassan Zadeh in the essay “Nameha wa Barnameha” (Letters and Plans) said that one of his students reached this position. Meaning he became a manifestation of the rational human truth.
In the past, these discussions were explained by prophets or wise men for people. After a while, these truths deviated from their truths and were combined with superstitions. Later idolatry appears and people shaved some idols from wood and stone and called them God, for example, God of Rain, God of War, God of wind, God of light, etc. If they need rain they went to that idol and asked for rain and so on. They accepted God and knew that these wooden or stone idols are not the creator of the sky and earth. They worshiped them because they thought those idols have independent authority from God. Later, more superstitions were added to this, and they said Gods marry each other and will have children and even fight and kill each other. At last, they even worship those wooden or stone idols.
“Is not to God that sincere faith is due? As for those who take guardians besides Him, “We only worship them that they may bring us nearer to God.” God will judge between them regarding their differences. God does not guide the lying blasphemer” (Az-Zumar:3).
In Shia traditions, we have “Malik Muwakil Baran” (the angle that has authority for rain).
Imam Sadiq (A) said, “The idolatry started when people made statues of their beloved prophets, scholars for respecting and remembering their faces. Later it deviated and their children followed their father’s path and started worshiping them. We have the story of Prophet Abraham (A) in the Quran which says:
“When he said to his father and his people, “What are these statues to which you are devoted?” (52) They said, “We found our parents worshiping them.” (53) He said, “You and your parents are in evident error.” (54) They said, “Are you telling us the truth, or are you just playing?” (55) He said, “Your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the One who created them, and I bear witness to that. (56) “By God, I will have a plan for your statues after you have gone away.” (57) So, he reduced them into pieces, except for their biggest, that they may return to it. (58) They said, “Who did this to our gods? He is certainly one of the wrongdoers.” (59) They said, “We heard a youth mentioning them. He is called Abraham.” (60) They said, “Bring him before the eyes of the people, so that they may witness.” (61) They said, “Are you the one who did this to our gods, O Abraham?” (62) He said, “But it was this biggest of them that did it. Ask them, if they can speak.” (63) Then they turned to one another, and said, “You yourselves are the wrongdoers.” (64) But they reverted to their old ideas: “You certainly know that these do not speak.” (65) He said, “Do you worship, instead of God, what can neither benefit you in anything, nor harm you? (66) Fie on you, and on what you worship instead of God. Do you not understand?” (67) They said, “Burn him and support your gods, if you are going to act.” (68) We said, “O fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham.” (69) They planned to harm him, but We made them the worst losers. (70)” (Al-Anbiya:52:70).
It is worth noting that Prophet Abraham did not lie to them because he said the biggest of them did that, you ask them (what happened) if they can speak. Meaning if they cannot speak then they did not break by themselves.
Imam Sadiq (A) said, “Indeed, the bearers of the Throne are eight, one in the form of a human being who asks God for sustenance for the children of Adam, the second is in the form of a rooster and asks God for sustenance for birds, and the third is like a lion who asks God for sustenance for predators and the fourth is like a cow who asks God for sustenance for animals. From the day when the children of Israel worshiped the calf, this cow (in the throne) has bowed its head and is ashamed, and when the Day of Judgment comes, the bearers of the Throne will be eight”. There are also some other narrations from Imam on this subject.
“The life of this world is nothing but diversion and play, and the Home of the Hereafter is the Life if they only knew” (Al-Ankabut:64)
Plato said, “In the intellect world everything is in everything”. Meaning we do not have multiplicities in the Intellect world like this material world. In another world time and place are parents of multiplicities.
Obstacles or covers will be removed and the First and the Last creatures are gathered in the Hereafter
The Hereafter is the Day of gathering. “The Day when He gathers you for the Day of Gathering—that is the Day of Mutual Exchange. Whoever believes in God and acts with integrity, He will remit his misdeeds, and will admit him into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme achievement” (At-Taghabun:9). In the Hereafter the inner side of us will appear because things are not absent from each other in the Hereafter. “On the Day when the secrets are disclosed” (At-Tariq:9).
Our inner is visible for Guardians of God right now and they are able to see the Hereafter bodies. A tradition from Imam Said, “In the “Throne” is an icon for every servant. If the servant worships, the angels see his/her statue and if the servant sin, God orders some angels to obscure servant’s icons with their wings, so other angels cannot see them. This is the meaning of God’s attribute which says, “Shows servant’s good deeds and hides servant’s bad deeds” ”. For example, we see other people’s actions live on the TV. Mir Damad (philosopher and mystic) said, “I was doing remembrance of God with Zikr “Ya Qani o Ya Muqni” (The one who is needless and makes others needless). All of sudden, I saw all creatures are gathered (believers and disbelievers) and they were saying “Ya Qani o Ya Muqni”.
The word “Yaum” (Day) in Quran means the appearance of things in each world based on their requirements. Whatever we see in the worldly life is a shadow of the Hereafter. The source or principle of creatures in the material world is their immaterial truths.
Creatures are separate in the Hereafter, this is the Day of Separation
In this worldly life, believers and disbelievers are together but, in the Hereafter, they are gathered but separated. Look how amazing God gathered these subjects in one verse beautifully. “This is the Day of Separation; We have gathered you, together with the ancients” (Al-Mursalat:38).
In the material world, truth and falsehood are together. Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali (A) said, “If truth and falsehood were separated no one would follow falsehood rather truth and falsehood are mixed, and people follow falsehood by mistake”. “What of him whose evil deed was made attractive (decorated fair) to him, and so he regards it as good? God leads astray whomever He wills, and He guides whomever He wills. Therefore, do not waste yourself sorrowing over them. God knows exactly what they do” (Fatir:8). If evil deeds were not decorated fair to people, they would not follow falsehood.
“By God, We sent messengers to communities before you, but Satan made their deeds appear alluring to them. He is their master today, and they will have a painful punishment” (An-Nahl:63).
Sometimes people who are enemies and hate each other sit together and might even eat lunch. Their inners are different, but their outers are all human. Naraqi (a Shia scholar) was teaching a few students in a small village. The other teacher noticed that after Naraqi came to the village no student was coming to his class, so he gathered all the parents of his students and said, “look this man is misleading your children”. He asked Naraqi to write “Snake” on the board, then he draws a snake on the board. After, he asked the parents which of these is a snake and people pointed to the drawn snake. He said, Look I was telling truth, Naraqi is teaching your children that the other one is “the snake”. So, they exorcised Naraqi from the village.
“On the Day when the Hour takes place – on that Day they will separate” (Ar-Rum:14)
I mean friends and enemies are together here, wife is believer and husband disbeliever, one brother is good and the other evil, but in the Hereafter people with similar attributes will gather. “In the Hereafter things returns to their origin”. “On the Day when We call every people with their leader. Whoever is given his record in his right hand-these will read their record, and they will not be wronged as much as a single date fiber” (Al-Isra:71).
In the Hereafter, righteous and evil men will be separated. “In order that Allah will separate the wicked from the good. He will heap the wicked one upon another, and then heap them together and cast them in Gehenna those shall be the losers” (Al-Anfal:37). A tradition says, “In the Resurrection, the light of the sun will be separated from the warmth of the sun. Its light goes to heaven and its warmth goes to hell. Evil attributes will be separated from a good man. Good words and actions will be separated from bad words and actions. Judgment will be based on truths. “But Allah sought to accomplish what He had ordained so that by clear evidence, he who was destined to perish might perish, and he who was destined to live might live. Surely, Allah is Hearing, Knowing” (Al-Anfal:42). “In order to confirm the truth and nullify falsehood, even though the guilty disliked it” (Al-Anfal:8)
In the Hereafter falsehood and illusion of things other than God will be removed. “And say, the truth has come, and falsehood has withered away; for falsehood is bound to wither away” (Al-Isra:81). We have multiplicity as long as we do not have unity, so when unity comes there would not be any multiplicities. There is only God. In this life, truth is truth and falsehood is false, but we do not see it, but in the Hereafter only God exists as it is now. “That is because God is the truth” (Al-Haj:6).
Khajeh said, “Hashr” in Quran means gathering, so The Resurrection is the Day of gathering
The verse of the Quran says, “On the Day when We set the mountains in motion; and you see the earth emerging; and We gather them together and leave none of them behind” (Al-Kahf:47).
“Hashr” (gathering) in the Hereafter are different. One group gathers as Quran says, “On the Day when We will gather the righteous to the Most Merciful, as guests” (Maryam:85). Another group gathers as Quran says, “The Day when God’s enemies are herded into the Fire, forcibly” (Fussilat:19). Each group gathers with what they were looking for, a narration said, “Gather him with those who he took as the leader and keep him away from those who he hated”. “Gather those who did wrong and their mates, and what they used to worship” (As-Saffat:22) and “By your Lord, We will gather them up, and the devils, then We will bring them around Hell, on their knees” (Maryam:68). It goes as far as a narration from Prophet Muhammad (S), “O Ali, You are my “Wasi” (a person who acts upon a dead person’s will) among my family, and the caliph over the living of my nation, your war is my war and your peace is my peace, you are the Imam, the father of the imams, eleven imams from you, purified and infallible, and among them is the Mahdi who will fill the world with equity and justice, so woe is to those who hate you. O Ali, if a man loved a stone, God would gather him with it, and that your lovers, your followers, and the lovers of your children, the imams after you, will be gathered with you, and you are with me in the highest ranks, and you are the divider of Heaven and Hell, your lovers will enter Heaven and those who hate you will enter Hell”.
Allameh Hassanzadeh said, there is another verse of the Holy Quran which confirms people will be gathered by what they like, “Anyone who leaves his home, emigrating to God and His Messenger, and then is overtaken by death, his compensation falls on God. God is the Forgiver, the Most Merciful” (An-Nisa:100). What does it mean by “anyone leaving their homes and emigrating to God and His Messenger”? Let’s pay attention to another verse of the Quran which says, “Our Lord, deliver us from this village whose people are oppressive” (An-Nisa:75). In one meaning, this village is our Nafs and a mystic in his spiritual journey leaves this village and travels to different cities. So, if one dies in this spiritual journey to God and His messenger, God will grant him mercy and reward. As we said before we have two types of death, the first one is the normal death which every human being will taste, “Every soul will taste death” (Al-Anbiya:35) and the other is voluntary death and might happen for a mystic.
Allameh Hassanzadeh said, “Narrations from 14 Ma’sumin (infallibles) are very sweet and interesting. Based on those narrations we would be able to understand the secret of the well-known hadith from Prophet Muhammad (S) which says, “This world is the farm of the Hereafter”. These narrations are related to knowing ourselves. The Ascension journey of Prophet Muhammad (S) is the journey of a perfect human to the highest level and in fact, ascension shows the degrees of human beings. “And that the human being attains only what he strives for” (An-Najm:39). Humans are the owners of what he strives for.
We have different types of ownership for humans as followed:
Example 1: I am the owner of this house; This is not real ownership because real ownership must be with the owner at all times. I am the owner of this house now but 5 years later, it might belong to someone else.
Example 2: I am the owner of my hand; this ownership is stronger than example 1 but still is fake ownership because I might not have my hand later.
Example 3: I am the owner of my knowledge; this ownership is the real ownership because my knowledge and what I perceived cannot be separated from me.
“To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth” (Al-Baqara:256). Ownership of God is the real ownership, and He is the real owner of creatures, and the relationship is one-way between God and His creations.
“Gather those who did wrong and their mates, and what they used to worship” (As-Saffat:22). Allameh Hassan Zadeh said the couplings (mates) mentioned in this verse are the ones that are attained in this worldly life. Prophet Muhammad (S) in a divine narration said, “Know that you will have a companion in the Hereafter forever, which is your actions”.
Khajeh said, “Animals gathering in the Resurrection – “When the beasts are gathered” (At-Takwir:5)
Khajeh was strong in “Masha” Philosophy” (Existence and Non-Existence) but his tendency was more towards “Ishraq Philosophy” (Light and Darkness). The human body is called “Barzakh” in Ishraq philosophy because all material things are between light and darkness. Instead in Masha’ Philosophy, we have Existence and Non-Existence as Light and Darkness respectively. Khajeh said that one of the meanings of beasts gathering is our animal power like lust and anger that will be gathered, and we see animals within ourselves in the Hereafter.
Mulla Sadra in his Gathering (“Hashr”) essay said, “There are two types of gathering (“Hashr”) for all creatures from intellects levels to Hayula (Hyle). 1- Independent gathering: like human gathering 2- Dependent gathering based upon other creatures”.
For example, my ear, eyes, tongue are separate here, but I am one identity and I hear, see and taste. As a result, my eyes, ears would be gathered based on me (Nafs). In conclusion, since human beings have intellect, they will be gathered independently but animals Nafs will be united and gathered dependently and based on their intellect truth (Rab An-Nu’).
Khajeh continues: “On the Day when the earth is changed into another earth, and the heavens and they will emerge before God, the One, the Irresistible” (Ibrahim:48). Because in the Hereafter there is no obstacle (matter), gathering for human beings will be based on their truth/faces. For this reason, a narration says, “In the Hereafter, some people will be gathered while monkeys and swine are more beautiful than them”. In the holy Quran we have: “Say, Shall I inform you of worse than that for retribution from God? He whom God has cursed, and with whom He became angry, and He turned some of them into apes, swine, and idol worshipers. These are in a worse position, and further away from the right way” (Al-Ma’idah:60). Some people are able to see people’s faces in the Hereafter even in this worldly life.
Imam Sadiq (A) said, “If people’s Barzakh vision (seeing the Hereafter faces) becomes open and they see each other’s inner, people would not bury their brother. But the blessing of God is granted to people not seeing each other’s inner attributes except for the guardians of God who can see people’s inner”. “Surely in that are signs for people who ponder” (An-Nahl:12).
O God, O God, Preserve our reputation in this world and the Hereafter via for the sake of your beloved Prophets and guardians.
All praise is to God to the extent that He deserves it.
 -خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ
 -يَوْمَ يَكُونُ النَّاسُ كَالْفَرَاشِ الْمَبْثُوثِ
 -جَزَاءً وِفَاقًا
 -لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
 – فصل
 -کلیات خمس
 – يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا
 – يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَقْرَءُونَ كِتَابَهُمْ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا
 – فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّىٰ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلَّا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا ﴿٢٩﴾ ذَٰلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ
 – وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا
 – قَالَ إِن كُنتَ جِئْتَ بِآيَةٍ فَأْتِ بِهَا إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ ﴿١٠٦﴾ فَأَلْقَىٰ عَصَاهُ فَإِذَا هِيَ ثُعْبَانٌ مُّبِينٌ ﴿١٠٧﴾ وَنَزَعَ يَدَهُ فَإِذَا هِيَ بَيْضَاءُ لِلنَّاظِرِينَ ﴿١٠٨﴾ قَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِن قَوْمِ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿١٠٩﴾ يُرِيدُ أَن يُخْرِجَكُم مِّنْ أَرْضِكُمْ ۖ فَمَاذَا تَأْمُرُونَ ﴿١١٠﴾ قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ وَأَرْسِلْ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ حَاشِرِينَ ﴿١١١﴾ يَأْتُوكَ بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ ﴿١١٢﴾ وَجَاءَ السَّحَرَةُ فِرْعَوْنَ قَالُوا إِنَّ لَنَا لَأَجْرًا إِن كُنَّا نَحْنُ الْغَالِبِينَ ﴿١١٣﴾ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنَّكُمْ لَمِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ ﴿١١٤﴾ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِمَّا أَن تُلْقِيَ وَإِمَّا أَن نَّكُونَ نَحْنُ الْمُلْقِينَ ﴿١١٥﴾ قَالَ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا سَحَرُوا أَعْيُنَ النَّاسِ وَاسْتَرْهَبُوهُمْ وَجَاءُوا بِسِحْرٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿١١٦﴾ ۞ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ أَنْ أَلْقِ عَصَاكَ ۖ فَإِذَا هِيَ تَلْقَفُ مَا يَأْفِكُونَ ﴿١١٧﴾ فَوَقَعَ الْحَقُّ وَبَطَلَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿١١٨﴾ فَغُلِبُوا هُنَالِكَ وَانقَلَبُوا صَاغِرِينَ ﴿١١٩﴾ وَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ ﴿١٢٠﴾ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿١٢١﴾ رَبِّ مُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ﴿١٢٢﴾ قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ آمَنتُم بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ آذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَمَكْرٌ مَّكَرْتُمُوهُ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ لِتُخْرِجُوا مِنْهَا أَهْلَهَا ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿١٢٣﴾ لَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُم مِّنْ خِلَافٍ ثُمَّ لَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴿١٢٤﴾ قَالُوا إِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا مُنقَلِبُونَ ﴿١٢٥﴾ وَمَا تَنقِمُ مِنَّا إِلَّا أَنْ آمَنَّا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا لَمَّا جَاءَتْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَتَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿١٢٦﴾
 – يُخَيَّلُ
 – قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِمَّا أَن تُلْقِيَ وَإِمَّا أَن نَّكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَلْقَىٰ ﴿٦٥﴾ قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ ﴿٦٦﴾ فَأَوْجَسَ فِي نَفْسِهِ خِيفَةً مُّوسَىٰ ﴿٦٧﴾ قُلْنَا لَا تَخَفْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْأَعْلَىٰ ﴿٦٨﴾ وَأَلْقِ مَا فِي يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوا ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا كَيْدُ سَاحِرٍ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ ﴿٦٩﴾ فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سُجَّدًا قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّ هَارُونَ وَمُوسَىٰ ﴿٧٠﴾ قَالَ آمَنتُمْ لَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ آذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكَبِيرُكُمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَكُمُ السِّحْرَ ۖ فَلَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُم مِّنْ خِلَافٍ وَلَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ فِي جُذُوعِ النَّخْلِ وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ أَيُّنَا أَشَدُّ عَذَابًا وَأَبْقَىٰ ﴿٧١﴾ قَالُوا لَن نُّؤْثِرَكَ عَلَىٰ مَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالَّذِي فَطَرَنَا ۖ فَاقْضِ مَا أَنتَ قَاضٍ ۖ إِنَّمَا تَقْضِي هَٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا ﴿٧٢﴾ إِنَّا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّنَا لِيَغْفِرَ لَنَا خَطَايَانَا وَمَا أَكْرَهْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ السِّحْرِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ ﴿٧٣﴾
 -لقاء الله
 – فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ
 – العلم امام العمل
 – مقولات عشر
 -ماهیات اولیه
 – It is perception without any intermediary, for example, we perceive who do we love or hate without an intermediary.
 – و تحسب أنک جرم صغیر و فیک انطوی العالم الأکبر
 – وَإِذَا الْوُحُوشُ حُشِرَتْ
 -گنجینه گوهر روان
 -رب النوع
 -آدم اول
 – أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ
 -ملک موکل باران
 – إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ ﴿٥٢﴾ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ ﴿٥٣﴾ قَالَ لَقَدْ كُنتُمْ أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ ﴿٥٤﴾ قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا بِالْحَقِّ أَمْ أَنتَ مِنَ اللَّاعِبِينَ ﴿٥٥﴾ قَالَ بَل رَّبُّكُمْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الَّذِي فَطَرَهُنَّ وَأَنَا عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكُم مِّنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ ﴿٥٦﴾ وَتَاللَّهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُم بَعْدَ أَن تُوَلُّوا مُدْبِرِينَ ﴿٥٧﴾ جَعَلَهُمْ جُذَاذًا إِلَّا كَبِيرًا لَّهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿٥٨﴾ قَالُوا مَن فَعَلَ هَٰذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿٥٩﴾ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا فَتًى يَذْكُرُهُمْ يُقَالُ لَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ ﴿٦٠﴾ قَالُوا فَأْتُوا بِهِ عَلَىٰ أَعْيُنِ النَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْهَدُونَ ﴿٦١﴾ قَالُوا أَأَنتَ فَعَلْتَ هَٰذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ﴿٦٢﴾ قَالَ بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هَٰذَا فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِن كَانُوا يَنطِقُونَ ﴿٦٣﴾ فَرَجَعُوا إِلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ فَقَالُوا إِنَّكُمْ أَنتُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٦٤﴾ ثُمَّ نُكِسُوا عَلَىٰ رُءُوسِهِمْ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ يَنطِقُونَ ﴿٦٥﴾ قَالَ أَفَتَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمْ ﴿٦٦﴾ أُفٍّ لَّكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿٦٧﴾ قَالُوا حَرِّقُوهُ وَانصُرُوا آلِهَتَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ فَاعِلِينَ ﴿٦٨﴾ قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ﴿٦٩﴾ وَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَخْسَرِينَ ﴿٧٠﴾
 – إِنَّ حَمَلَةَ اَلْعَرْشِ ثَمَانِيَةٌ أَحَدُهُمْ عَلَى صُورَةِ اِبْنِ آدَمَ يَسْتَرْزِقُ اَللَّهَ لِوُلْدِ آدَمَ وَ اَلثَّانِي عَلَى صُوَرَةِ اَلدِّيكِ يَسْتَرْزِقُ اَللَّهَ لِلطَّيْرِ وَ اَلثَّالِثُ عَلَى صُورَةِ اَلْأَسَدِ يَسْتَرْزِقُ اَللَّهَ لِلسِّبَاعِ وَ اَلرَّابِعُ عَلَى صُورَةِ اَلثَّوْرِ يَسْتَرْزِقُ اَللَّهَ لِلْبَهَائِمِ وَ نَكَسَ اَلثَّوْرُ رَأْسَهُ مُنْذُ عَبَدَ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ اَلْعِجْلَ فَإِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ اَلْقِيَامَةِ صَارُوا ثَمَانِيَةً
 – وَمَا هَٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا لَهْوٌ وَلَعِبٌ ۚ وَإِنَّ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ لَهِيَ الْحَيَوَانُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
 – يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُكُمْ لِيَوْمِ الْجَمْعِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ يَوْمُ التَّغَابُنِ ۗ وَمَن يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَيَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِ وَيُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
 – يَوْمَ تُبْلَى السَّرَائِرُ
 – أَنَّ فِي اَلْعَرْشِ تِمْثَالاً لِكُلِّ عَبْدٍ, فَإِذَا اِشْتَغَلَ اَلْعَبْدُ بِالْعِبَادَةِ رَأَتِ اَلْمَلاَئِكَةُ تِمْثَالَهُ وَ إِذَا اِشْتَغَلَ بِالْمَعْصِيَةِ أَمَرَ اَللَّهُ بَعْضَ اَلْمَلاَئِكَةِ حَتَّى يَحْجُبُوهُ بِأَجْنِحَتِهِمْ لِئَلاَّ تَرَاهُ اَلْمَلاَئِكَةُ فَذَلِكَ مَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ يَا مَنْ أَظْهَرَ اَلْجَمِيلَ وَ سَتَرَ اَلْقَبِيحَ
 -یا غنی یا مغنی
 – أَفَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ فَرَآهُ حَسَنًا ۖ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۖ فَلَا تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَاتٍ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ
 – تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
 – وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ
 – يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَقْرَءُونَ كِتَابَهُمْ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا
 – لِيَمِيزَ اللَّهُ الْخَبِيثَ مِنَ الطَّيِّبِ وَيَجْعَلَ الْخَبِيثَ بَعْضَهُ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فَيَرْكُمَهُ جَمِيعًا فَيَجْعَلَهُ فِي جَهَنَّمَ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
 – وَلَٰكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَىٰ مَنْ حَيَّ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ ۗ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
 – لِيُحِقَّ الْحَقَّ وَيُبْطِلَ الْبَاطِلَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ
 – وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۚ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا
 – ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ
 – وَيَوْمَ نُسَيِّرُ الْجِبَالَ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ بَارِزَةً وَحَشَرْنَاهُمْ فَلَمْ نُغَادِرْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا
 – يَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ الْمُتَّقِينَ إِلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ وَفْدًا
 – وَيَوْمَ يُحْشَرُ أَعْدَاءُ اللَّهِ إِلَى النَّارِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ
 – اَللَّهُمَّ اُحْشُرْهُ مَعَ مَنْ يَتَوَلاَّهُ وَ يُحِبُّهُ وَ أَبْعِدْهُ مِمَّنْ يَتَبَرَّؤُهُ وَ يُبْغِضُهُ
 – احْشُرُوا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا وَأَزْوَاجَهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا يَعْبُدُونَ
 – فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا
 – أنت الوصيّ على الأموات من أهل بيتي ، و الخليفة على الأحياء من أمّتي، حربك حربي و سلمك سلمي، أنت الإمام أبو الأئمة ، أحد عشر من صلبك أئمّة مطهّرون معصومون، و منهم المهديّ الذي يملأ الدنيا قسطا و عدلا، فالويل لمبغضكم. يا علي لو أنّ رجلا أحبّ في اللّه حجرا لحشره اللّه معه، و إن محبّيك و شيعتك و محبّي أولادك الأئمة بعدك يحشرون معك، و أنت معي في الدرجات العلى، و أنت قسيم الجنة و النار، تدخل محبّيك الجنة و مبغضيك النار
 – وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
 – رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا
 – كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ
 – وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَىٰ
 – لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ
 -و انه لا بدلک من قرین و هو فعلک
 -فلسفه مشاء
 -وجود و عدم
 -فلسفه اشراق
 -نور و ظلمت
 -رب النوع
 – يَوْمَ تُبَدَّلُ الْأَرْضُ غَيْرَ الْأَرْضِ وَالسَّمَاوَاتُ ۖ وَبَرَزُوا لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ
 – یحشر الناس علی صور یحسن عندهم القردة و الخنازیر
 – إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ